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Bird of the Moment

#581 Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo: 19 April 2017

The bird of the week has, regrettably, been so irregular over the last year or so, that I can’t pretend anymore that it’s a weekly event, or even a monthly one for that matter. These days we’re supposed to achieve peace of mind by living in the now, so I’ve renamed the series Bird of the Moment.

Photo of Scarlet Macaw scarlet_macaw_112578

In the last one on Macaws, I finished with this photo of a Scarlet Macaw feeding on an introduced Terminalia tree in Costa Rica and mentioned that the fruit of same species (T. cappata) is equally popular with Red-tailed Black-Cockatoos along The Strand in Townsville. Here is a pair with the male on the right whispering sweet phrases to the female two days before Valentine’s Day: she looks very receptive. You can see the female has spots on the head, barring on the body and a barred panels in the tail against a background of red and yellow. The male has glossy black plumage and scarlet, unbarred panels in the tail.

Photo of Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo redtail_blkcockatoo_15231

These Cockatoos are quite common in the Townsville District and for me it was love and first sight when I arrived here in 2002. They are spectacular birds, very large (to 65cm/25in in length) with a wonderful leisurely ‘rowing’ flight, long tails and a permanent smile. They are often heard before being seen both when perched and in flight, owing to their haunting, far-carrying, trumpeting calls, which are positively melodious compared with the ear-shattering screeches of their ubiquitous white relatives, the Sulphur-crested Cockatoo. They’re remarkably tame too, and seem to enjoy being photographed.

Photo of Terminalia trees terminalia

Terminalia grow readily from seeds, and Jo Wieneke gave me some seedlings when I moved to Bluewater in 2013, which I planted, above, with the sole aim of attracting these Cockatoos. These belong to a different species of Terminalia with smaller leaves and fruit. The fruit of T. cappata, the ‘Beach Almond’ is about the size of a walnut; this one is more like a smallish, hard, black olive. The three trees all lean to the left, a legacy of cyclone Yasi in 2011, called the ‘Yasi lean’. Since then the trees have tried to correct this defect by growing vertically at the base and the top - easiest to see in the left-most tree - and growing thicker branches on the right-hand side, presumably as a counter-balance.

Photo of Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo redtail_blkcockatoo_170647

The trees started flowering and fruiting about three years ago, and I was delighted then with the first visit of a lone Black-Cockatoo. Last November, the trees had an abundant harvest, and a pair of Cockatoos came each evening at about 4:30pm (and maybe before I surfaced in the morning) and harvested thoroughly until they had completely stripped all the fruit. The birds are wonderfully acrobatic (below) and their preferred way of eating is to snip off a twig, hold it in one foot, stand on the other foot, prise open the hard shell to get at the kernel in the middle and discard both the shells and the twigs.

Photo of Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo redtail_blkcockatoo_170458

The shell is quite hard and I cut one open to see what was inside and found the the kernel is tiny, so it seemed like a lot of effort for a relatively small reward. In the photo below, the male is using the pointed tip of the upper mandible to extract the kernel from the cracked shell. They drop a lot of unopened fruit and several months later a small flock of cockatoos came round to feed on the ground under the trees.

Photo of Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo redtail_blkcockatoo_170649

The coloured panels on the tail are not easy to see except when the birds spread the tail feathers, either when taking off, landing or doing a sudden manoeuvre in flight. Presumably it is an important signal to other members of the flock. Black-Cockatoos seem to form long-term pair-bonds which are maintained even when they flock, so I wonder whether the variability in the colour of the panels of females (the one below has much red and little yellow) help the males identify their mates.

Photo of Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo redtail_blkcockatoo_57324

The next photo hows a male just after take-off and showing his red panels to best advantage.

Photo of Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo redtail_blkcockatoo_02242

Here is a female on the beach at Horseshoe Bay on Magnetic Island. She looks as if she’s contemplating a swim - you can see the edge of the water in the background - but it is more likely that she is looking for fruit from the Casuarina trees growing along the foreshore. In the absence of introduced Terminalia trees, the birds feed on the fruit of native trees including those of Eucalyptus and Pandanus.

Photo of Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo redtail_blkcockatoo_13244

The Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo is the most widespread of the five species of Black-Cockatoo, all of which are Australian endemic.s (I’m not including the Palm Cockatoo which belongs to a different genus and occurs in Cape York and widely in New Guinea.) The other four species are the Glossy (eastern Australia); the Yellow-tailed (eastern and southern Australia and Tasmania) and the Long-billed and Short-billed (both have white tails and are restricted to SW Western Australia). The Red-tailed has five subspecies which differ in size and in the colour of the tail panels in females: the largest, nominate race banksii (Queensland and northern NSW); the large-billed macrorhynchus (Northern Territory and NW Western Australia); the smaller samueli in central Australia; naso in (SW Western Australia); and graptogyne (western Victoria and SE South Australia).

Photo of Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo redtail_blkcockatoo_10379

The three birds in the last photo belong to the large-billed race macrorhynchus, and presumably are a family with the female on the left and the male on the right. The bird in the centre has female-like plumage but a black bill - femals have whitish bills - so is probably a juvenile male; juvenile males take about four years to acquire the adult male plumage. Family bonding would appear to be important and you often see these birds in groups of three.

I’ve been slack about the Bird of the Moment; I have however been working on the website. The latest inclusions include a gallery of Dragonflies and one of Butterflies and Moths, and there are various additions to the bird galleries.

Greetings
Ian

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Page revised on 19 April 2017